“Most people believe vulnerability is weakness. But really, vulnerability is courage. We must ask ourselves… are we willing to show up and be seen?” -Brene Brown
It finally happened this semester. I quietly closed the door to my office. I held my head in my hands. And I cried.
It started innocently. I was marking assignments for one of my classes. One of my students recently lost a grandparent, so I was being watchful to see how this student was doing. It seemed that the student was doing fine, receiving credit for all but the last question. However, at the bottom of the page was a message for me scrawled out in pencil… A message stating that times have been exceedingly difficult. A message reflecting that time was moving too fast. A message of apology. And a message of vulnerability.
Instinctively, I began writing. I shared my story of how I lost my grandmothers last year and how challenging it was for me and my family. I shared that I understood. I shared that I was willing to sit in the uncomfortable space of sometimes life sucks and there is nothing we can do about it. I shared my own vulnerability. In that moment of silent connection, that’s when the built-up sadness, stress, frustration, and anxiety over the past year came.
Empathy – feeling with people – is something that I feel is often missing from the current back-and-forth debate in education. How good are we at perspective-taking? When I first entered the educational sphere, I argued with a firm passion. I believed in what I said, and I still do to a certain extent, but what did I have to show for it? I am not convinced that the people who really mattered – our nation’s teachers – ever listened.
Over the past year I have been trying more diligently to hear all sides of the educational debate – I have tried my hand at perspective-taking. I try to fit the shoes. What have I found? I have found hard-working and dedicated educators looking for strategies to help their students learn in a world that is continually buzzing. I have found passionate individuals who believe that there are gaps that need to be filled and are having a go at improving aspects of education and teacher-training. I have found students who respect you and value your opinions when you aren’t afraid to listen.
I have found connection.
I have found disconnection.
I have found individuals who silence communication with verbal attack. I have found friends who, at my most vulnerable moments, erected unscalable walls. I have found vested interests with the primary goal of money-making and dehumanizing teachers. I have found groupthink and perpetuation of the other.
Take a moment to think about someone whom you really dislike. Have you verbally attacked them? Do you speak words behind their back? Next, think of someone whom you cherish. How often do you verbally attack them? How often do you speak words behind their back? Probably less when compared to the individual you dislike, right? In general, the less connection we have to someone, the easier it is for us to attack that individual. Be mindful of this the next time you open dialogue with someone.
Let’s return back to the beginning of the post. Is it OK to cry? Yes. Be proud of your vulnerability and use it to make genuine connection. Don’t be afraid to say, “Hey, I am overwhelmed and need help with this.” Because it is these moments, when reciprocated, that lead us to something that is most valuable: our humanity.
“Students learn more when their teachers know the content, and when they can anticipate student misconceptions.” -Daniel Willingham
Today in class as my student were presenting the solutions to the surface area and volume questions they had been assigned and an interesting opportunity came up. So I decided to do a little experiment.
In order to understand what I would like to share, we have to quickly refresh on some basic arithmetic when dealing with surface area:
(1) To calculate the lateral surface area of a right pyramid, one can relate this to the perimeter: L.S.A. = 1/2 x Perimeter of base shape x Slant height of pyramid. Note that this formula is equivalent to summing the various triangles that compose the lateral faces.
(2) To calculate the lateral surface area of a right prism, one can also relate this to the perimeter (in a much easier to see way): L.S.A. = Perimeter of base shape x Height. Note that this formula is equivalent to summing the various rectangles that compose the lateral faces.
Now that we have that under our belts, here is what happened. One student was calculating the volume and surface area of a right square-based pyramid (no diagram was given – but we had side length of 5ft and height of 12ft). The following was given as a solution:
L.S.A. = (4s) x h = 4 x 5ft x 12ft = 240 square ft.
After the question was complete, I asked the class to analyse the response. I mentioned that often as a teacher of mathematics it is useful to be a detective (I call this Maths CSI). Where is the error? What went wrong? How was the student thinking and what should we say to help with the misconception? After several minutes, they were unable to find the error – mind you, they were looking at four calculations instead of one, so maybe the scope was too large. In our case it turns out that the student calculated the lateral surface area of a square-based prism instead of a square-based pyramid.
To me, this brought back the discussion of factual/procedural knowledge versus pedagogical content knowledge. My teachers could very well utilize the formulas given, make substitutions and explain exactly how they arrived at their solutions. That is, their factual/procedural knowledge was quite strong. But, when I asked them to reflect on what went wrong in this particular example, this was pushing them a bit too far out of their comfort zone.
Often I hear the argument that if our future teachers only took calculus (or some other high-level mathematics course) then they would be good teachers. I find this argument rather empty – I’m not convinced that more factual/procedural knowledge necessarily leads to a more effective teacher. I am certain we have all had instructors who were quite knowledgeable – yet lacked the aspects that would make them an excellent teacher. Now, I am certainly in favour of teachers knowing the progression of mathematics – that is I would like my high school teachers to have seen some university/college level calculus and algebra courses. But do our elementary level teachers have to take calculus to be good teachers? I feel this is out of the scope of beneficial progression for them to see. Would it not be more beneficial for a teacher teaching K-4 to understand deeply the progression of mathematics to Grade 8 instead? And those teaching middle school to know deeply the progression up to precalculus?
Rather than taking calculus, would it not be more beneficial for our future teachers to take a mathematics course in pedagogical content knowledge where they study aspects such as the progression of mathematical concepts, common misconceptions students have, questions to ask to understand how students are thinking, and how to know when students are ready for deeper learning? I would argue yes. Prominent researchers such as Dan Willingham, Deborah Ball and John Hattie remind us of the important role pedagogical content knowledge of teachers plays in the success of students. This is not to say that factual/procedural content knowledge has no place – in fact, I would argue that this type of knowledge is necessary before teachers can develop worthwhile pedagogical content knowledge. However, it may also be important to ask the question “How much factual/procedural content knowledge is sufficient to help teachers acquire pedagogical content knowledge required for success in the classroom?”
“We need to increase the explicit instruction on unit fractions and we need to explore fractions continually rather than as a single unit of study.” -Cathy Bruce
In this post, I want to describe my experience with the Fraction Talks Activity I originally borrowed from Nat Banting’s site. He has since become a curator to www.fractiontalks.com, a website devoted to various templates teachers may use – if you haven’t seen it yet, it is very worthwhile to check out!
After pondering about the original blog post for a few minutes, I was struck with just how versatile these templates are at connecting certain mathematical aspects together, and providing a visual representation of certain operations/ideas. The fraction talk template that I used when I worked with two classes of Grade7/8 was the following:
Concept of Fraction
Perhaps one of the most basic uses of the template is to connect it to the general concept of a fraction: a shaded portion of a whole, in which the whole has been divided into equal parts. To do this, we can shade in a certain area of the overall square (taking the big square to be the whole) and ask what fraction of the whole we have. For example, we may shade in the rectangle below and ask students to determine what fraction of the whole is shaded in.
In this case, you can reinforce that the regions under consideration must be of equal size. Be on the lookout for answers of 1/16 since this means the student has partial understanding of what a fraction means in terms of shaded regions.
Extension questions (try on your own):
“What fraction of the whole is not shaded in?”
“Shade in a region of the whole representing 1/4.”
Shade in multiple different-sized regions and ask “What fraction of the whole is shaded in?”
Of importance is which region we use as our whole. For example, let’s use the same shaded region, but restrict our whole to a smaller square.
Here, you can check to see if students recognize that the shaded region depends on what region we agree to be the whole unit.
Extension questions (try on your own):
“Shade in a region representing 1 and 1/2.”
Once students are comfortable with the big ideas up top, you can start to play a little bit! When I used this activity for the Grade 7/8 classes, I had two end-goals in mind: I wanted them to utilize multiplication and addition of fractions to help them determine certain shaded regions. Let’s first look at how we can connect multiplication into this.
First, identify a region you want to work with. Using the big square as the whole, I have shaded in the purple region below as the area of interest to start:
Next, we want to identify a sub-region with our original 1/4:
Finally, we can view this sub-region in terms of fraction multiplication. The sub-region is 1/2 of the original 1/4. But we already know that this region is 1/8 of the whole. Hmmm…
From here, once students can see the visual argument, you can shade in various smaller regions and have them write a multiplication statement in order to determine the fraction of the whole.
Extension question (try on your own):
“Shade in a region representing 3/4 of 1/4.”
Fraction addition can be visualized in a similar way, and may potentially be easier than multiplication. Here we identify two disjoint regions we want to work with. Using the big square as the whole, I have shaded in the purple region below as the area of interest to start:
Most students were happy dividing the overall shape into small squares to get a fraction of 3/16.
Great! However, my end-goal was connection to fraction addition, so I went back to the shaded region and had the students think about what the fractions were as separate entities. We agreed:
I asked the students to add the two fractions, and then two observations were noted. The first was that 1/8 + 1/16 = 2/16 + 1/16 = 3/16, which is what they had noted before. The second was that when the grid of red lines was added originally, it shows the connection to the equivalent fractions 1/8 = 2/16 (can you see it?). The teachers helping me facilitate noticed that the grid the students formed gave a visual of the LCM of 8 and 16, as well.
Extension questions (try on your own):
“Shade in a different region that also represents 1/8 + 1/16.”
“Shade in a region representing 1/32 + 3/64. What fraction of the whole is this?”
Shade in multiple different-sized regions and ask “What fraction of the whole is shaded in? Use an addition statement to help you determine your answer.”
I see many other applications of the fraction talks templates, such as perimeter or area, and I am sure they will come as you explore them a bit more. You will notice that the template I chose was slightly challenging. I actually gauged my audience with a simpler template (to decrease extrinsic cognitive load since the extra lines would add to the overall cognitive load) and moved on to the more challenging one since they were comfortable talking about the simpler template. The students I was working with had already studied fractions and fraction operations quite extensively, so this was essentially an extension activity for them to help solidify some of the bigger ideas they had been working with. This said, I still think some of the templates are very accessible and could be used as an introductory activity or as an intermediate activity to gather information on how your students are perceiving fractions. The versatility of the activity is certainly one of the major selling features for me. In closing, check out www.fractiontalks.com and try it our yourself – it makes for a pretty interesting and informative activity.
Here is the BLM from my fraction talk: Fraction Talks BLM
Feel free to use it for your own class.
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“[Rethinking the boundaries of CLT] may allow reconciling seemingly contradictory results from studies of the effectiveness of worked examples … and studies within the frameworks of productive failure and invention learning that have reportedly demonstrated that minimally guided tasks provided prior to explicit instruction might benefit novice learners.” -Kalyuga & Singh
For those of you who know me and follow my blog, you know that I am heavily influenced by Cognitive Load Theory because I believe it is an excellent framework to help me think about teaching and learning. However, you may have noticed that there are certain aspects of Cognitive Load Theory that have been bothering me as of late. For example, in my last post, I reflected a bit on the expertise-reversal effect and how Cognitive Load Theory tends to view most learners as novices. To be frank, I find this rather uninspiring. Similar to the ending of The Force Awakens – it leaves me wanting more.
Over the past couple weeks I have had the opportunity to discuss some really interesting articles with a couple of awesome educators. One article that fell into my lap was “Rethinking the Boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in Complex Learning” by Kalyuga & Singh. As an aside, it may be important to note here that Kalyuga was one of the authors contributing to this important text I commonly refer to as The Bible – so I utterly respect and value this fellow’s opinion. Let me tell you, I was not disappointed.
The reconceptualization of cognitive load theory proposed in this paper was triggered by the attempts to reconcile some empirical evidence that seemingly contradicts established findings of this theory.
So what empirical evidence is Kalyuga & Singh speaking of? And how does it contradict Cognitive Load Theory? Perhaps a good place to start are with the assumptions of Cognitive Load Theory.
The typical way Cognitive Load Theory is framed is based on the assumption that acquisition of schemas in the long-term memory is the end-goal of an instructional task. As such, the varying types of cognitive load are defined with this assumption in mind, which leads to particular instructional techniques being selected to decrease working memory load in certain situations. For example, it is suggested for novice learners that explicit instruction should be favoured to minimally guided techniques, since minimally guided techniques may involve using search methods (such as means-end analysis) that overload working memory space, impeding schema acquisition. The situation is different for expert learners, since experts already have well-developed domain-specific knowledge. Explicit instruction tends to be ineffective for experts, since too much attention is spent trying to integrate the pre-existing knowledge with the externally provided support, decreasing working memory space.
A growing body of knowledge in the areas of productive failure and preparation for future learning seem to contradict Cognitive Load Theory. That is, certain well-designed minimally guided tasks given to novice learners before explicit instruction tend to be beneficial when compared to beginning with explicit instruction. (For a taste, one of Kapur’s articles is here.)
It Gets More Complex
In lieu of the above empirical evidence, Kalyuga & Singh suggest that we need to rethink the boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in the context of complex learning. In this article, complex learning refers to tasks involving “multiple learner activities that may have different goals.”
Some of such goals may indeed differ from the acquisition of domain-specific schemas and therefore require corresponding learner activities and instructional methods for their achievement that are different from the activities and methods that are best suitable for learning domain-specific schemas.
Now this is interesting! If we relax the assumption that our end-goal is acquisition of domain-specific schemas, then we can allow the empirical evidence that Kapur and Schwartz (and others) have given us into the realm of teaching and learning. In fact, Kalyuga & Singh give a possible simplified version of instructional goals in complex learning. First, one might consider low-level goals, or goals related to creating necessary prerequisites for schema acquisition. Items that may belong to this level include motivation to learn, activation of prior knowledge, engagement with the task, searching for deep patterns (as opposed to surface characteristics), or making students aware of gaps in knowledge. From this level, we move to mid-level goals, which include any goals that may be related to acquisition of domain-specific procedures and concepts. Here, we can turn to Cognitive Load Theory as a well-developed and tested framework. Finally, Kalyuga & Singh suggest a third tier of high-level goals, which may include generalization of procedures or flexibility in performance. [NOTE: this is simply a suggested model. For a more tangible model, see this article by Kirschner & van Merriënboer.]
Borrowing and Reorganizing
As Cognitive Load Theory began to emerge, Sweller suggested connections between natural information processing systems and the architecture of human cognition. One premise that came out of this evolutionary perspective was the borrowing and reorganizing principle. This principle states that natural information systems will borrow information from other stores (in human cognition, this information is borrowed from other people) rather than create new information. For example, during sexual reproduction the information held in your genome contained borrowed information from both our mother and father that was reorganized into a unique genome.
The borrowing and reorganizing principle underpins the worked example effect (that is we borrow the solution procedure from the long-term memory of a knowledgeable individual). Much research around the worked example effect has shown us that if acquisition of domain-specific schemas are the end-goal of an instructional activity, then worked examples are an efficient way to reach this goal. However, might it be that learning is not as simple as natural information processing systems? This is exactly the argument of Kalyuga & Singh:
The processes of learning biologically secondary information patterns (schemas) in human cognition may require additional learning activities that are not present or even required in other natural information processing systems.
This means the borrowing and reorganizing principle, and its associated consequences, may not extend to these particular activities.
In closing, I want to make note that this post is not meant to downplay the significance of Cognitive Load Theory. I like to think of it more as an attempt to nest Cognitive Load Theory into a larger schema of learning. Currently, this means we may need to be considerate of borrowing aspects from other well-developed learning theories and reorganizing them into a bigger picture of best-practices for our students.
“Novice learners may benefit most from well-guided low-paced instructional procedures, while more knowledgeable learners may benefit more from minimally guided forms of instruction.” -Slava Kalyuga
The Example that Led to Reflection
I never cease to be amazed at the level of knowledge that my teachers keep bringing to the table in my class. Last week we were discussing probability trees, and one student was leading the activity with the following tree (probabilities of drawing a yellow, green or black ball without replacement):
After the student was finished answering a couple of questions we had about the tree, I posed the challenge “Create a question where the final answer is 2/5.” I asked this question because I wanted them to get more comfortable with conditional probability. For example, the probability that we will draw a black ball, given that the first ball is yellow is 2/5, so P(B|Y) = 2/5.
Much to my surprise, the first answer given was “Determine the probability of drawing a black or green ball, given that the first ball drawn was black.” I had to sit back and try to figure out where this answer was coming from since I had not anticipated it (this is both the joy and challenge of allowing students to lead the discussion)!
Since the events of drawing a black ball and drawing a green ball are mutually exclusive, we can calculate
P(B or G | B) = P(B|B) + P(G|B) = 1/5 + 1/5 = 2/5.
Can you determine the branches used to create this question? After doing some of what Michael Jacobs calls “Maths C.S.I.” I had successfully determined how the student was thinking.
Are All of Our Students Really Novices?
Over the weekend I began pondering about how there is a lot of talk that mathematics students need to be treated like novices, especially in elementary school. For example, in Anna Stokke’s C.D. Howe Report, she states
To be effective, instructional techniques must cater to the limitations of a person’s working memory, which can hold only a limited amount of new information. This is particularly important for novice learners who have difficulty focusing on new concepts when their working memory is overwhelmed.
I don’t necessarily disagree with the statement above – one which is taken from Kirschner, Sweller & Clark, and heavily founded in Cognitive Load Theory – it is important for us as teachers to understand when learners may have limitations, and how to effectively combat these limitations. I do, however, think it is important for us to also reflect on how often we treat our students as novice learners, and realize their potential as non-novice learners. Those who argue in favour of CLT often view their learners as novices, effectively by-passing the expert-reversal effect. Stated briefly, the expert-reversal effect states methods that typically work well to elicit learning in novice learners are not necessarily the best methods to elicit learning in non-novice learners. For example, as one progresses in their knowledge of mathematics, worked examples become less conducive to learning.
In lieu of this thought, I pose some questions:
1) Are all of our students actually novice learners? Is it possible that our students are sometimes non-novices?
2) If we agree that at least some of our students are non-novices, what methods should we utilize to elicit learning in these individuals? Must it still be direct instruction and worked examples?
3) If we believe that our students are novice learners, will we ever see them as non-novice learners? Does this belief we hold affect their learning?